조회 104회 작성일 2023-10-13 14:22
Bilirubin Nanomedicine Rescues Intestinal Barrier Destruction and Restores Mucosal Immunity in Colitis
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) manifests as intestinal barrier destruction, mucosal immunity dysregulation, and disrupted gut microbiome homeostasis. Conventional anti-inflammatory medications for IBD therapy partially alleviate symptoms but are unable to restore normal barrier and immune function. Here, we report a nanomedicine comprising bilirubin (BR)-attached low-molecular-weight, water-soluble chitosan nanoparticles (LMWC-BRNPs), that promotes restoration of the intestinal barrier, mucosal immunity, and the gut microbiome, thereby exerting robust therapeutic efficacy. In a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-induced colitis, orally administered LMWC-BRNPs were retained in the GI tract much longer than other nonmucoadhesive BRNPs owing to the mucoadhesiveness of LMWC via electrostatic interaction. Treatment with LMWC-BRNPs led to considerable recovery of the damaged intestinal barrier compared with the current IBD medication, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Orally administered LMWC-BRNPs were taken up by pro-inflammatory macrophages and inhibited their activity. They also concurrently increased the population of regulatory T cells, thereby leading to the recovery of dysregulated mucosal immunity. An analysis of the gut microbiome revealed that LMWC-BRNPs treatment significantly attenuated the increase Turicibacter, an inflammation-related microorganism, resulting in protection of gut microbiome homeostasis. Taken together, our findings indicate that LMWC-BRNPs restored normal functions of the intestine and have high potential for use as a nanomedicine for IBD therapy.